Alzheimer’s disease is related to the environment
Guide: Experts remind that Alzheimer’s disease is related to the environment. The elderly have entered the final stage of life, and the health indicators of the body are slowly decreasing at the same time. Therefore, it is a top priority for the health care of the elderly.Let the old man spend his old age, a healthy body is essential.
Alzheimer’s disease, also known as “Alzheimer’s disease”, referred to as AD, the prevalence study shows that the number of Alzheimer cases in the United States in 2000 was 4.5 million, with an increase of 5 years of age, Alzheimer’s disease patientsThe percentage will increase by 2 times, so the 60-year-old population will recover 1% of the disease, while the 85-year-old population will recover 30%.
With the rapid aging of society and society, Chinese scientists have never stopped exploring Alzheimer’s disease.
Not long ago, medical scientists from Xiamen University School of Medicine discovered that a CUTA protein has a serious connection with the cause of Alzheimer’s disease. The paper was published in the internationally renowned journal “Biochemistry Journal” for the future of humanity to overcome Alzheimer’s disease.The disease casts another line of light.
About half of the 85-year-old population is sick Zhang Yunwu is the executive director of the Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases and Aging Research at Xiamen University School of Medicine. His research team published the latest research on Alzheimer’s disease on JBC.
In an interview with this newspaper, he introduced that although there is no national systemic statistics, there are some data showing that the number of patients with AD has reached 600?
10 million people.
Because Alzheimer’s disease is a serious age-related disease, about 10% of people in the 65-year-old population are sick, and about 50% of the 85-year-old population is sick.
Therefore, the rapid aging of the world and the expected society, the incidence of Alzheimer’s disease will become higher and higher.
Moreover, the average life expectancy of people is getting longer and longer, and the probability of developing diseases is higher than before.
In addition, many people can’t tell the difference between Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease.
Professor Zhang Shizhong said that Parkinson’s disease is caused by the change of substantia nigra in the brain of patients, which only affects the movement of patients and does not affect their intelligence.
Alzheimer’s disease is genetically related to what has changed in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease, so that their intelligence changes to such a degree?
Professor Zhang Yunwu introduced that in the human body, mainly in the brain, a small molecular protein derivative called β-amyloid (Aβ) is produced.
Aβ is neurotoxic, and if Aβ is abnormally accumulated and aggregated in the brain, especially in areas closely related to cognitive memory, such as the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, it will lead to dysfunction of neuronal cells in these areas.death.
When the number of deaths of neurons reaches a certain level, it will cause obstacles in human cognitive memory, resulting in Alzheimer’s disease.
Environmental deterioration has a catalytic effect on the pathogenesis. The pathogenesis and causes of Alzheimer’s disease have been continuously explored. Although the results are clear, Professor Zhang Yunwu said that it is known that Aβ causes abnormal accumulation in the brain and induces disease.Reasons include both genetic and environmental factors.
He said that biological genetic factors are a cause of Alzheimer’s disease, but because this part of the patient only accounts for a small part of the total case, it is not a factor.
“Some environmental factors, such as heavy metal pollution, oxidative stress, etc., have been found to increase the incidence of Alzheimer’s disease. Therefore, our increasingly deteriorating environment today and fast-paced life pressure may lead to disease catalysis.In this regard, more in-depth research is needed to replace its relevance.
Professor Zhang Shizhong said that both AD and PD (abbreviation of Parkinson’s disease) are genetically related diseases.
“In fact, every step of human change is related to genes, but our understanding of the human body is still very limited.
“People with Alzheimer’s disease genetics must be at high risk of AD.
Further, as a gene-related disease, the negative effects of genes may also be induced under certain circumstances.
In a stressful and polluted environment, positive and negative genes are fighting, and negative genes are more likely to “jump”
out and promote disease.
Gene mutation disease disease occurs early in the real life of young and middle-aged patients with this disease.
So, is there a tendency to rejuvenate the onset of Alzheimer’s disease?
This, Professor Zhang Yunwu said that there is no clear research evidence to support this view.
“Although it is now found that young people develop symptoms around the age of 30, the early onset of this disease is due to genetic factors.
“If several genes involved in Aβ production, including APP, PS1 or PS2 genes, are mutated, a large amount of Aβ will be produced. In the early stage, a large number of neuronal cells will die, causing early disease.
Professor Zhang Shizhong also said that in fact, all diseases have a younger trend, and Alzheimer’s disease is different.
This may only be because society’s attention to health has increased.
In addition, it is also related to urbanization.
“In the past, rural people seldom went to see a doctor. Through the improvement of medical care, many diseases were diagnosed and discovered earlier than in the past.
“Conquering: Looking for the “target” of treatment” Professor Zhang Yunwu’s laboratory has been committed to triggering the cause of Alzheimer’s disease from the genetic and protein levels. It has been discovered and identified that it can participate in Alzheimer’s disease by affecting Aβ production.New gene protein.
He succinctly introduced his research: “In short, our study found that CUTA protein can affect the production of Aβ.
If an abnormality occurs in CUTA, it may affect the level of Aβ in the brain, leading to disease.
“The identification of multiple gene proteins within CuTA, which may be the “target” for the development of drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease in the future, is of great significance for the future detection and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.
To put it more simply, it is only when those “targets” that are most relevant to the induction of Alzheimer’s disease are found that it is possible to target the “arrow” of treatment and avoid lethality.
Otherwise, the “enemy” does not know where it is, let alone how to “produce the enemy.”
Professor Zhang Shizhong explained that CUTA protein is a participant in the pathogenesis of AD. As a “promoter”, it is possible to achieve the goal of treating Alzheimer’s disease by intervening in CUTA.
At the same time, it may be possible to test the CUTA level by blood sampling and detect Alzheimer’s disease.
However, all of these studies are still in the laboratory, and there is still a long way to go from laboratory to clinical applications.
“One may find many genetic loci and correlations with other factors, but it will take years of research to verify the effects of these factors.
Therefore, although Alzheimer’s disease has long been proven to be able to take gene therapy, until now, there has been no particularly good treatment.
Regular exercise can delay AD Zhang Yunwu said that AD has a so-called incubation period.
This is because, only when the number of neuronal deaths reaches a certain level, the symptoms appear when these involved cognitive memories are impaired.
Therefore, from the abnormality of Aβ level to the time when the symptoms of the disease are manifested, it can be considered as the incubation period.
Since the onset of a part of patients is caused by genetic factors, genetic mutation detection can help these patients predict the potential risks.
People with mutations such as APP, PS1 or PS2 may develop at an earlier stage, while those with the ApoE4 allele have a significantly higher incidence than those who do not.
“But the onset of AD patients is caused by environmental factors, and the test methods for predicting potential risks in these populations are not yet mature.
Zhang Yunwu said.
Some studies have found that in the early stage of AD, the brain’s brain energy metabolism and glucose metabolism are abnormal, therefore, the use of brain functional imaging methods to detect, or detect the formation of amyloid plaques in the brain, may lead to early diagnosis of the elderlyDementia, but it still needs to be confirmed.
“Many researchers, including our labs, are investigating whether other biological markers are available for early warning of AD testing.
There are quite a lot of rumors about preventing AD in the workshop. Some even think that it can be “formed by shape” and prevented by eating walnuts and pig brain.
But these methods can be scientifically verified.
Professor Zhang Yunwu said that there is clear evidence that regular exercise can delay AD, which has been confirmed in animal models.
The study found that the proportion of animals that exercised regularly was delayed and the condition was mild.
In addition, proper mental exercise and rest of rest also help maintain normal cognitive memory function.
Therefore, living to the old, learning to be old, and working hard, both mentally and physiologically, are beneficial to people.
Outlook: Neuron regeneration technology is expected to prevent AD Professor Zhang Yunwu from introducing. At present, when AD patients show obvious disease symptoms that can be diagnosed, the neurons in the brain often have a large number of deaths and are irreversible.It is difficult to achieve better results.
However, through scientific advances, we will be able to predict the potential risks of the disease in advance, and effectively diagnose changes in Aβ levels and abnormalities in neuronal function at an early stage.
“By combining prevention and early treatment to reduce Aβ levels and supplementing damaged neuronal cells with neuronal regeneration techniques, we will be able to reduce the incidence of AD and effectively treat it.
“So, is there a vaccine that can be implanted in Alzheimer’s?”
Professor Zhang Shizhong said that because the pathogenesis of AD is still unclear, it is still far from a future to develop an effective vaccine.
Professor Zhang Yunwu said: “As far as I know, there are some companies and laboratories that are developing vaccines for AD.
The main idea of vaccine research is to achieve the therapeutic goal by inducing the body to produce anti-Aβ antibodies and clearing its own Aβ.
Many of these studies have yielded good results on animal models.
However, around 2003, when clinical tests were conducted in humans, some meningitis appeared.
Therefore, research on the human body was terminated.
Recently, new vaccine research reports, including improved Aβ vaccines and vaccines against other Alzheimer’s disease-related proteins (such as tau), have also achieved good results in animal models.
But whether these vaccines are also effective in the human body requires further research.